An Overview of Enlarged
Prostate and Common Causes!
Prostate cancer is the most
common malignancy in men and is also one of the most curable form of
cancers. It is commoner in African Americans than their Caucasian counterparts
and the reasons for this are yet unknown. The disease ranks as the
second leading cause of cancer related deaths ( after lung cancer) for males
in the U.S. It is estimated that blacks have twice as many deaths from the
disease than Caucasians.
It is estimated that about two-third of
cases discovered at autopsy were completely asymptomatic ( the affected
individuals did not show symptoms of the disease). Even though the disease is
rare before the age of 50, the incidence increases with age, thereafter. There
are notable differences in the incidence among different populations across the
world, but this differences have also been attributed to environmental factors.
Some prostate carcinomas may grow slowly and therefore show minimal symptoms, while others are quite aggressive and manifest very quickly with varied symptoms. the most common form of prostate carcinomas are Adenocarcinomas ( accounts for 95%). The remaining are squamous cell and transitional cell carcinomas. Prostate carcinomas arise mostly from the peripheral zones of the prostate gland unlike benign prostatic hyperplasia which occurs in the transitional (periurethral) zones.
The cause of the disease
is unknown but there are several risk factors that have been
implicated and the most important of them is age. The prevalence
increases geometrically after the age of 50 and this approaches 100
percent at age 90. The effect of environmental, cultural and dietary
differences have also been suggested. The prevalence is
suspiciously higher in men who consumer diets that are high in fat.
It is also suggested that the disease may be inhibited by diets rich
in antioxidants. Other risk factors include race (commoner in
blacks), positive family history, hormonal influence ( elevated
androgen levels have been detected in some cases) and exposure to certain chemicals
such as pesticide and herbicides. The bone is the most common site
of metastasis from the disease. There is no sufficient evidence to
support the efficacy of routine digital rectal exam as a screening
method in individuals that do not have symptoms, but annual rectal
examination is recommended anyway, as part of the overall health
Symptoms Of Prostate
with prostate cancer ( whether early or advanced stages) may
not show any symptoms at all. In fact, in many cases, it is
only detected on routine rectal examinations. Sings and
symptoms of the disease are usually encountered when the
disease is advanced in stage ( with or without metastasis).
Affected individuals may present with the following
symptoms: Pain while urinating, difficulty in urinating,
increased frequency of urinating, blood in urine, urine
retention, weight loss, lack of appetite, bone pain, back or
hip pain and other complications. The complications may
include spinal cord compression, pulmonary embolism and deep
Management Of Prostatic Carcinoma
Diagnosis Of Prostatic Carcinoma
The diagnosis of
prostate cancer is often an incidental finding on digital
rectal examination. Rectal examination is used both for
detection and estimation of degree of local spread of the
disease. Palpation of the prostate reveals a characteristically
hard, irregular and nodular consistency. Palpation of the seminal
vesicles may also reveal local extensions of the tumor. Measurement
of the serum level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is the most
sensitive test for early detection of cancer of the prostate (
particularly when combined with digital rectal exanimation) . PSA is
also used to follow patient's response to treatment. But the value
of routine screening of the PSA has not been fully established (
mainly because false positive results may occur in other conditions
such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). Other investigative
procedures that the doctors carry out include ultrasound-guided
biopsy (which is the primary method of diagnosis), chest radiograph
and radionuclide bone scanning ( to evaluate and detect metastasis
of the disease). Pelvic lymph node dissections are often carried out
to grade the disease. The tumor is graded from 2-10 based on Gleason
Treatment Of Prostatic Carcinoma
The treatment modality depends on several factors: i) presence or
absence of distant metastasis ii) patients choice iii) patients age
and performance status. Total or radical prostatectomy
is often used for a cancer that is localized to the prostate and in
patients with a 10 year minimum life expectancy. Total prostatectomy
may be complicated by impotence and incontinence, but the incidence
is minimal in experienced hands. Radiation therapy may be
delivered in the form of external beam radiation or implantation of
radioactive seed, but this form of treatment may be complicated by
frequency of urination, bloody urine, strictures, impotence,
incontinence or rectal complaints. External beam radiation may be
administered in conjunction with androgen deprivation therapy.
Patients with low stage cancer may be treated with interstitial
brachytherapy with or without external beam radiation boost.
Palliation treatment is often employed in cases where there is
diffuse metastasis to the bone. Watchful waiting may play a role in
patients with advanced disease or those with low stage cancers.
Serial PSA and digital rectal examination monitoring in conjunction
with androgen ablation therapy is often the method of approach for
patients with lower than 7-10 year projected survival. Your
doctor will discuss the treatment modalities with you. Please
consult a licensed medical practitioner.
Chuang AY, Demarzo AM, Veltri RW, Sharma RB, Bieberich
CJ, Epstein JI (2007). "Immunohistochemical Differentiation
of High-grade Prostate Carcinoma From Urothelial Carcinoma".
The American Journal of Surgical Pathology 31 (8):
Andriole, GL; Roehrborn C, Schulman C, Slawin KM,
Somerville M, Rittmaster RS (September 2004). "Effect of
dutasteride on the detection of prostate cancer in men with
benign prostatic hyperplasia". Urology 64 (3): 537–41;
information provided on this site is for informational and
educational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for professional medical advice, treatment or diagnosis.
The website is not intended to provide medical advice, and does not provide medical advice.
Consult a licensed Medical practitioner for further clarification. In medical emergencies, please call 911 for urgent attention.
Do not copy-duplicate any material on this site.
Copyright © 2009
All Rights Reserved.
About Us |
User Agreement |
Carcinoma de Próstata
Potato Soup Recipes